Perfect Symmetry

So far, we have seen how the Euler product links the \(\zeta\)-function to the prime numbers. More precisely, it encodes the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. One may also say, it’s the analytic version of it, in a sense that should become clearer shortly. What we have done so far works perfectly for the real numbers. The sum \(\sum n^{-s}\) that defines \(\zeta(s)\) converges for \(s>1\), that’s how Leonhard Euler found his product, and that’s what Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet used to prove the prime number theorem in arithmetic progressions. [Read More]